75th Anniversary of the Liberation of Halle Germany by the American Army and a German WWI Naval Hero

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Graf Luckner – US Intelligence Photo – National Archives

My first military history book I wrote was Cruise of the Sea Eagle.  It was the story of Count Felix Von Luckner who, in WWI, went raiding on the high seas in the three-mastered windjammer.  No, I am not making this shit up.  Von Luckner raided the Atlantic and Pacific – only taking one life in his operations.  His ship was wrecked on an island in the Pacific (cue the Gilligan’s Island theme) and he was captured by New Zealanders, and escaped.  His story is amazing on many levels.  But today, I’d like to focus on one instance in particular – the saving of his hometown, Halle.

 

US National Archives.  Sketches of the Sea Eagle (Seeadler) 

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US Navy Photo – the wreckage of the Seeadler on Mopelia Island

By WWII, Von Luckner was an old man.  The Nazi’s didn’t want anything to do with him, because he didn’t buy into their ideology.  He was relegated to living in his home town, Halle.

On April 19, 1945, 75 years ago, the US Army came to liberate the town.  It had been spared a lot of carnage and devastation in the war.  The German commander was prepared to slug it out, making the Americans lay waste to the city.  Graf Luckner sneaked through the battle lines and connected with General Terry Allen of the US Army.  Von Luckner acted as an intermediary, negotiating the German surrender of Halle, saving his home town.

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General Allen with Von Luckner

In doing research for the book, my wife and I went to Halle, which had just emerged from being part of East Germany.  The city was very much as it appeared during WWII.  Much of this is because Von Luckner had spared the city.  Ironically, the East German’s version of events is that the American Army was never there –  that the Russians had liberated the town.  Revisionist history at its worst.

Today being the 75th anniversary of their liberation is special and brings me back to our visit there.  We have some wonderful memories of this beautiful German town and look forward to our return one day.

You can take part in the Von Luckner story by being part of his historical society.  Von Luckner Society

Centennial of US Entry into WWI

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Bill Thaw – One of the Americans that joined the French Foreign Legion, then the French Air Service, then became a combat commander in the US Air Service.  August 1915 photo.

Today, April 6, 2017, marks the 100th anniversary of the US declaring war and entering the Great War.  We were latecomers to “the big show,” which had been raging since 1914. Even with the declaration, it took months before US troops began to arrive in France, and even longer before we actually waded into combat in 1918.  We fought in significant battles for a few months until the war ended on November 11, 1918.  As the author of several books on the Great War, I cannot simply let this event pass without a few random and wandering thoughts of my own.

My first exposure to the war came in childhood.  I remember my great grandparents had a farm handyman that was a vet – I think his name was Ernie.  Quiet man, never talked much.  It’s hard to believe that in my lifetime I knew a WWI vet.  All have “gone west” now.

The US doesn’t embrace the Great War the way we do WWII.  The First World War was a quick event for us, unlike the rest of Europe who bore the scars of it to this day.  We lost a lot of men though.  The Meuse Argonne Cemetery is filled with more Americans than the cemetery at Normandy, or so I read.  While the war was horrific – with flamethrowers, gas, tanks, bombs, trench warfare, etc.; our troops were only in it for a few relatively short months.  It failed to scar us enough to be remembered the way we do WWII.

It was a war that changed our country though.  We realized that standing on the sidelines, hiding under neutrality, did not spare you from the war.  It was the first war that brought about terrorism.  The US Capitol was bombed by the Germans.  Munitions plants in New Jersey were blowing up – even damaging the Statue of Liberty.  We were the victim of unrestricted submarine warfare.  In fairness, we were selling tons of munitions to France and England…so our neutrality was at best, a means for us to profit from the war.

While there are bound to be a lot of ceremonies marking this event, I would like to remind folks that we actually had Americans fighting in the war years before the official US entry.  Volunteers, mostly college students, joined the French Foreign Legion in 1914, looking for adventure.  Many of them transferred into the French Air Service, joining the Lafayette Flying Corps and the all-American (French led) Lafayette Escadrille.  These men would later become the heart and soul of the fledgling US Air Service when American did finally formally arrive in France in 1917.  Others joined the American Ambulance Service.

That’s right.  American men were flying and fighting and dying in the Great War four years before the rest of the country caught up to them.  They knew in their hearts what was right long before the rest of the nation did and took action – many giving their lives for a cause that the rest of the country ignored.  On this day of commemoration, let us not forget the men who went before.

Nor let us forget the commitment to our allies, still strong today.  As Colonel C. E. Stanton said to our French comrades upon our arrival, “What we have of blood and treasure are yours.  In the presence of the illustrious dead, we pledge our hearts and our honor in carrying the war to a successful conclusion…”

“…Lafayette, we are here!”

Book Review – The Lafayette Escadrille – by Steven A. Ruffin

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With the centennial of the Great War upon us I expected more books and interest in the Lafayette Escadrille.  This was, after all, a pioneering group of Americans that flew for France years before the US even declared war.  Most of its surviving members went on to be the nucleus of the American Air Service.  Without the Lafayette Escadrille and its larger fraternal organization, the Lafayette Flying Corps, the US Air Force might have begun as a debacle.  Instead it was seeded with these combat veterans.

When I heard Steve Ruffin had a book out on the subject I was excited.  In the last few years Jon Guttman and I both had written books on the Lafayette Escadrille – albeit mine was a biography of one of its more “unique” pilots, the rogue Bert Hall.  I had to wonder…would Ruffin’s book really be able to stand out?  There are a lot of books about this unit out there over the century since the war.

This one does stand out.

First, it is a photo history of the unit.  Ruffin hit some of the same places I did for photos of the unit.  What he brought to the table was context.  Paul Rockwell’s photos are in boxes down at Washington and Lee University.  Ninety-percent are unlabeled.  Steve Ruffin dove into that treasure trove (and others) and not only identified the men, but where they were and when they were there.   This book is chocked full of photographs, many of which we simply haven’t see.

Some of my favorite images Ruffin included were side-by-side shots of the men and machines, then a modern shot to show the same camera angle at the same locale today.  I loved these then-and-now images.  It is a testimony to how he must have buried himself in the research.

On top of that there are a lot of color images of the aircraft.

On the history itself, Mr. Ruffin did his work too.  He did not give us a glossed-over summary of the unit but instead went to archival sources to tell the story.  This is always a favorite of mine.  Let the men speak in their own words – with their own letters.

My only critique of the book, albeit minor, comes purely from a historian’s slant only.  It’s not footnoted.  I would have liked to know where the sources of some of the quotes he had came from.  And yes, that’s me being nitpicky, but I often find footnotes useful (and in some cases even entertaining).  On a personal note:  He dug up material that I missed in my own research when writing The Bad Boy, and I want to see where he found it!

Does Ruffin break new ground with this book?  Yes.  Some of the letters he has here have never seen the light of day in a century.  He gives us some new tid bits that will appeal to WWI aviation historians.

The Lafayette Escadrille – a Photo History of the First American Fighter Squadron, is available from Casemate Publishers for $37.95.  It is well worth it if you are an aviation enthusiast of the era.  If you are a buff, make sure you join the League of WWI Aviation Historians as well, www.overthefront.com 

Centennial of the formation of the Lafayette Escadrille

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Lafayette – we have arrived.  The Lafayette Escadrille

This week marks the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Escadrille Américaine, later known as the Lafayette Escadrille.  Sadly, most Americans know little of this unit today, but at the time, the exploits of these pilots in the Great War were daily newspaper articles.  In 1916, young boys wanted to be these heroes of the air and young men headed off the Europe to join them.  Ladies wrote them, sent packages and gifts, swooning over these young aviators.

America would not declare war for another year and it would be many months later before any American squadrons arrived and joined the fight.  In the meantime the men of the Lafayette Escadrille (and the broader Lafayette Flying Corps) would be the core of the American Air Service, the only combat-experienced American aviators.

While the Lafayette Escadrille was a squadron whose ranks were Americans, they were led by a French commanding officer.  The unit is often confused with the Lafayette Flying Corps (which most men were joint members of.)  The flying corps was much larger and its member were Americans that were seeded into French escadrilles. Both of these volunteer organizations were at war long before America as a nation stepped up to the plate.

Many of the members of the unit began in the American Ambulance Service and the French Foreign Legion.  They came to Europe for many reasons, most believing that the war would be over in a few months.  When they formed the Escadrille Américaine it spurred an international incident because America was officially neutral.  The eloquent solution was to rename the organization to the Lafayette Escadrille.

Most of the original founders came from rich families.  There were a few rogues in the mix – namely men like Raoul Lufberry and Bert Hall; older more seasoned than the high society college boys.  The war they fought was one of bitter stinging cold open cockpits.   Parachutes were not part of their kits.  They flew planes that were spruce and metal covered with doped linen.  Their cockpits were not armored and often the men sat next to or on top of their fuel.  Death could come at any angle at any moment – yet that did not deter these brave men.

There was a romantic air about these men (pun unintended). Their mascots were two pet lions – Whiskey and Soda.  They had a bottle of champagne that was a “Bottle of Death” reserved for the last surviving member to toast his fallen comrades.  In may respects, their exploits were crafted for Hollywood.  Two movies have been made about the unit, but both sadly missed any degree of historical accuracy.

The Lafayette Escadrille and the Lafayette Flying Corps were to become the heart and soul of the American Air Service.  Without these men, America’s aviation pursuits in WWI would have been a disaster – with countless more casualties.  The formation of the escadrille marked the start of a true US Air Force.

This week, the French honored the Americans at their massive memorial outside of Paris.  I received my invitation to attend but was too late.  That was okay.  I’ve had the honor to write about such men in my books Lost Eagles and The Bad Boy – Bert Hall, Aviator and Mercenary of the Skies.  I have enjoyed the honor to chronicle exploits of such men.  And in this week, marking the centennial of the start of their incredible historical journey, I wanted to take a moment to remember what these volunteers did for the American Air Force.

Unboxing the Handley Page 0/400 Bomber – Wings of Glory

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Here comes havoc! 

I took part in the Wings of Glory “big jumbo honking bomber” (my name for it) Kickstarter.  It’s not that I’m a big fan of the large aircraft, but I do enjoy Wings of Glory quite a bit.  Introducing massive bombers could add some dimensions of play that are fascinating.  Also, my grandson is six and is almost at an age where we can start playing the game…it’s that easy.

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The packaging was my only issue, albeit a minor one

As you can see, you get a two-sided game map with the Kickstarter, ace cards, a maneuver deck, stands, rules and oodles of miniature WWI goodness.

The bomber itself is an impressive model.  I struggled for five minutes to extricate it from the packaging however – the Ares Games guys REALLY had it secured.

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They all look like ants from up here…
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Pristine…almost too pristine.
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Crisp lines
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Seriously dude, if you shoot now, you’re hitting your own tail

I love the paint job on this mini.  I kind of wish the Wings of Glory stuff all didn’t look as if it came new out of the factories.  Some weathering would be neat.  I’m sure there are guys out there frantically repainting these for realism, which is great.

While I’m not a British aircraft fan, this mini has a lot to offer for WWI aviation buffs.  Enjoy!

 

Unboxing the Zeppelin Staaken R.V1 – Wings of Glory

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Bomber Goodness!

One thing about Ares Games, who produces Wings of Glory, they deliver.  Their latest Kickstarter campaign for two of the big bombers of WWI was too much for me to pass on.  And this week, my Handley Page and Zeppelin Staaken bombers arrived!

I’ll be doing an in-depth review of these miniatures in Over The Front in an upcoming issue (I convinced the editors to introduce a game review column).  In the meantime, I thought I’d expose you to the unboxing of the German aircraft.

First observations, with all of the add-ons from the Kickstarter, you get a lot.  The plane itself is magnificent – and done to scale with the other aircraft in the Wings of Glory line.  When you put it out on the map of London (Kickstarter exclusive I believe) you realize one thing – you’re gonna need a LOT more map space to play with these big boys.  It would take 4-5 turns to circle one of these in a fighter.  Seriously, it’s huge – and that’s what makes it so awesome.

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Ace and Maneuver Cards
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The comparison chart
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Over London
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From behind
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From above
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View from the front

Anyway, I just thought my regular readers would enjoy seeing this come out of the package.  I’ll be unboxing the Handley Page shortly too.  I can’t wait to put these bad boys to the test against some fighters!

The Impact of the Great War

Patton Renault

Patton and a Renault Tank 

I write books on the Great War and have for years, even before it became popular.  My newest one, Never Wars, has a chapter on an almost alternate history – where Germany won the war in Europe in a few months.  I view WWI as one of those unsung conflicts (in American history) because our involvement was so short-lived that it did not leave as much as an indelible imprint on our culture as other conflicts.

I speak at a number of venues on this subject and have been asked from time-to-time about what the impact of the Great War was on the world.  It’s a challenging question because of the scope.  I tend to think of the Great War as merely the “opening act” for decades of conflict and upheaval in the middle of the 20th Century – culminating with the collapse of the Soviet Union.  Against that context, the war did alter not only the face of Europe, but the world as a whole.

So, here’s my list of impacts (not listed in any particular order) about the ramifications and impacts of the Great War. I tended to focus on this from an American perspective – but tried to be fair and balanced.

The downfall of many Imperial families in Europe:

Prior to the Great War the ruling imperial families tended to have dramatic influence on what happened in Europe – if not the world.  The Great War changed that political dynamic.  The Kaiser was disposed and exiled.  The Hapsburgs in Austro-Hungary had their powers shattered as new states were formed.  In Russia, the Czar and his family were executed, effectively purging their bloodline.  The old status-quo of political power shifted from ruling families to some form of representative government.

The Great War built the Detroit auto industry:

The story of Henry Ford and the Model T is well known in historical circles.  What made Ford Motor Company – and upped the ante in auto competitiveness was The Rouge Complex.  At the Rouge, raw materials came in via the Detroit River to the Rouge River Basin, emptied, and were turned into cars and trucks at the other end of the facility.  Iron was turned to Steel, sand to Glass…everything.   I worked there in my early career.  What people don’t generally know is that it was all built by the Great War.

The Rouge was just a twinkle in Henry Ford’s eye when the war broke out.  He secured a contract with the US Navy to build torpedo boats.  The logical place was his facility to do this was on his Rogue property.  Ford’s problem, the Rogue River basin was too shallow for boat construction.  He convinced the Navy to dredge it out for him.  They did, but by the time they finished, the war was over as was the need for a large number of torpedo boats.

Wiley old Henry had gotten the US Government to dredge the Rouge which allowed the massive cargo ships he wanted to drop off their raw materials in the complex.  The miracle of the Rouge was now a reality – all because of the Great War.

Communism moved from theory to reality:

Karl Marx came up with his theories of communism before the Great War, but no citizens had ever adopted the theories into practice on any scale until the Russian Revolution of 1917.  Ironically, it was the Germans that sent Lenin into Russia to ferment revolution and hopefully take Russia out of the war.  While it worked, it also created the future doom of Germany in the Second World War.

Aircraft as weapons of war:

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Aircraft provided the most vital role of the war – observation of the enemy.  With wireless sets, aircraft observers could direct artillery fire real-time against enemies that in the past could only be found with mounted cavalry reconnaissance.   Observation balloons could monitor troop movements and defenses from miles away.  Mounting weapons on aircraft allowed pilots to target observation aircraft/balloons and destroy them.  This led to the birth of the fighter aircraft.  A new dimension of combat came into being with the skies now part of the battlefield.  Aircraft could, by the end of the war, work in concert with ground forces in a crude combined arms manner that would drive military tactics to this very day.

Bombing- however crude, also came to realization in the Great War.  No longer did seas provide barriers for protection – Zeppelins crossed waters and could bomb cities in England.  Later bomber aircraft were created for carrying the war against distant enemies.   Strategic bombing evolved as a concept for waging war.

Perhaps most remarkable was the rapid evolution of aeronautics in the war.  Every 4-6 months a new generation of aircraft came into existence, with new capabilities and improvements.  In an age before computer simulation and testing, new planes were rapidly prototyped and put into production, more so than any other time in history.  The Great War altered the world’s perception and capabilities in regards to aviation.

The tank was invented:

The stalemate of trench warfare was broken by 1917-18 with the aid of a new technology – the tank.  Armored vehicles had been around since the start of the war but only in 1916 was the concept of a caterpillar tracks employed which would allow armored vehicles to transverse the mud of no-man’s-land and carry the fight directly to the enemy.

The first tanks were semi-mobile death traps; prone to mechanical failure and ponderously slow.  Alone they had impact.  Used with infantry support, the tank altered the tactics of warfare – allowing for the blitzkrieg of WWII.

I maintain that the tank alone did not end trench warfare.  If you look at the Kaiserschlacht offensive by the Germans in 1918, they used few tanks and were able to dramatically shift the front with sheer numbers and improved tactics.  What the tank did is provide a mobile combat platform that allowed smaller numbers of troops to defeat a comparable enemy.

Radio – the wireless — became a part of the battlefield:

Radio existed before the Great War but it underwent a technological leap in terms of application during the war.  Observers in aircraft and balloons used radio to transmit troop movements, adjust artillery barrages real-time, etc..  Radios became somewhat smaller and more durable as a result of the war (though still bulky by modern standards) which allowed their post war boom in the consumer market.

Submarines emerged as viable weapons of war:

While arguments can be made that submarines were used in earlier conflicts, they were never a serious threat until the Great War.  While the Germans are often credited with their employment of the U-Boats in the war, all major nations made great strides with their development of these weapons systems.  Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare was a contributing factor to the United States being drawn into the war – one of the rare times that a weapon system/strategy actually had political implications in a war.

Submarines in WWI were crude and dangerous.  Their torpedoes were not incredibly accurate, but they had stunning effects that we still are coping with today.  In 1914 the U-9 sunk three armored cruisers in a single combat action – sending ripples of fear into the Royal Navy that forced changes in fleet protection, an upturn in British submarine production, and the start of creating anti-submarine tactics.  The results were other pieces of new technology – hydrophones and depth charges.

Grenades became an integral infantry weapon:

Arguments can be made that grenades had been used in some form by the Greeks and Romans, but WWI created the fragmentation grenade (The British Mills Bomb) which spurred a wide range of spinoff designs by other nations.  Up until this time, grenades tended to be unstable and as much a threat to the thrower as the target.  The Great War changed that and by the end of the war, the hand grenade became a standard issued item in most armies.

Flamethrowers were invented and utilized:

While pundits will point to weapons like Greek Fire as the forefather of the flamethrower – the weapon itself did not become effective until it appeared on the Western Front outside of Verdun in 1915.  While an insidious weapon, it was effective against entrenched foes.

While the US and most nations do not use these weapons currently given the type of damage they inflict – they proved critical in WWII against entrenched and deeply tunneled Japanese forces in the Pacific.

Helmets became standard defense gear:

Metal helmets have existed from the era of knights, but were always deemed too impractical for large scale warfare.  By the time of the outbreak of the Great War, most armies offered cloth head protection or in the case of the Germans, leather.  By 1915 head protection made a huge leap forward with both sides issuing metallic helmets.  While not entirely proof against rifle fire, they offered some protection from shrapnel from artillery barrages.

Naval aviation is born:

I know that the Confederacy used a balloon from a floating platform, but that can hardly be considered as true naval aviation.  There were floatplanes prior to the Great War, but the vast majority of these were privately owned.  WWI changed that.  The Germans utilized Zeppelins to provide observation for their naval forces.  Naval aviation extended the view of the fleets beyond the horizon – altering the shape of naval warfare.

The largest hand-made construction project since the pyramids:

The trench lines of the western front literally were a ditch dug across the continent – by manual labor.  This engineering project had no overall plan or design, it was done out of desperation, yet the magnitude of this piece of manual labor has not been matched by human beings since.  Yes, we’ve built marvelous things, but nothing on the scale or scope of the trench system.  Just the amount of barbed wire (also pioneered in the Great War in large scale) laid was staggering in scale.  Yet after the war, it was merely abandoned and turned into farmland.  Today evidence of this project can only be seen in a handful of locations or from the air.

It proved to Britain that they could go to war as an Empire:

In previous conflicts, Britain had made use of some of its vast imperial troops in battles – but not the sheer numbers involved in the Great War.  Canada, Australia, India and other countries sent massive numbers of infantry to wage war for Mother Britain.  It proved that such efforts were possible and laid the foundation for WWII.

Naval mining becomes a strategy:

While naval mines were used in conflicts prior to WWI, it was in this war where they were used in massive numbers and used successfully.  Naval mines were much more effective in this war and consistent in their functioning.

Evolution of modern amphibious operations:

Amphibious landings have been part of warfare for centuries.  In the Great War the powers learned valuable lessons in how this type of warfare was to be conducted, and the types of equipment needed for successful landings against artillery and machineguns.  Gallipoli, while a botched invasion, became a classroom for leaders who went on to plan landings in WWII and Korea.

Camouflage plays a large-scale role on the battlefield:

The first six months of WWI were frightening when you consider the lack of camouflage.  Images of French troops in their blue uniforms, red pantalooms, bright blue piping – marching off against the enemy is tragic.  This image was not far off from reality though.  Camouflage was a concept that was born out of the necessity of battle.  By 1916 the armies had all begun to adopt new uniforms that allowed soldiers to blend in better with their surroundings.

And it wasn’t just on land – navies also adopted and experimented with camouflage patterns to make ship identification more difficult.

Machineguns and rapid-fire artillery emerge as dominant forces:

I put these on the list together deliberately.  Machineguns had been used in battle prior to the Great War, even in the Spanish American War.  On their own, they were deadly – but when you combined these with rapid-fire artillery, you are creating a battlefield environment where infantry advances are measured in yard not miles.  This combination forced the advances in tanks and aircraft as a means to circumvent the carnage that could be rained down on the common foot soldier.

The roles of Japan and Italy on the world stage were established:

Prior to the Great War Japan and Italy were seen as obscure observers in world affairs, cast to the edges of the world stage.  The war changed that.  By the end of the conflict, both nations had assumed more power and recognition globally than ever before.  While pundits might argue that they did not get much out of the Versailles Treaty, the fact that they were there was significant — especially in light of their roles in WWII decades later.

Gas warfare is deployed:

The use of toxic gases as weapons of war became the norm in World War One.  They proved so horrific that no one was even willing to use them in WWII (on a large scale).  The Germans, when faced with losing to the Soviets did not employ their gas stockpiles.  Gas warfare was indiscriminant in its victims and inflicted horrific injuries – to the point now that we consider it a “weapon of mass destruction.”

GAS

The end of the Ottoman Empire – the roots of the modern Middle East problems:

While the Ottoman Empire was waning before the war, the Great War served as the death-blow to this government.  The Ottoman holdings became a number of nation states, some merely puppets of the European powers.  The crumbling of the Ottoman Empire left the Arab nations barely in control of themselves and their resources.  The lines of division driven by the peace at the end of the war carved up the empire into many of the nation states that exist today. In the post-war era, Palestine became a British protectorate and the British established the rights of the Jewish people there.  The implementation of the Balfour Declaration led for the first modern drive for a true Jewish state.  It created the foundation for many of the issues and conflicts that were to follow up to modern day.

Great Authors were inspired:

War tends to generate moving literature and that was certainly the case with World War One.  Veterans were often inspired by the carnage and chaos of war, or wrote about the conflict.  Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall (an aviator of the famed Lafayette Escadrille) wrote a trilogy of novels about the mutiny on the HMS Bounty which fictionalized the events of this famous mutiny.  Earnest Hemingway was an ambulance driver in the war and his experiences led to the book , A Farewell to Arms.  More recently, historians believe that young JRR Tolkien’s exposure to the horrors of war helped inspire some of the darker aspects of The Lord of the Rings.

Last naval war of battleships:

Many people attribute the end of the Battleship era to World War II.  That may be true, though Billy Mitchell’s and other’s work demonstrating air power in the post-war era make a case that the doom of the battlewagons came earlier.

What no one can deny is that the Great War was the last of the era where large fleets of battleships engaged each other Trafalgar-style.  There were smaller battles, like Dogger Bank, but both sides of the conflict believed that a massive fleet-to-fleet engagement would happen to determine the course of the war.  In the Great War, Battleships, battle cruisers, etc., were the nuclear weapons of their era — strategic weapons that allowed nations to press their influence around the globe.

The Great War at sea was anticipated to be a massive fleet-on-fleet slugfest which would determine the winner of the war.  It was disappointing in that.  Yes, Jutland was a massive engagement which historians still struggle to frame in terms of victory (don’t get me started here), but for the most part it was inconclusive.  While battleships would sail again in WWII, they would never engage in massive engagements on the scale of Jutland.

Combat photography plays a key role:

While photographs were taken in wars prior to the Great War, it was in this conflict that they were an integral part of military planning.  Observation aircraft equipped with cameras and observation balloons took photographs of the enemy positions which were used for planning operations, targeting artillery, etc..  World War One ushering in the age of aerial reconnaissance photography which continues today with satellites and drones.

The war established military command structures for managing alliances:

Managing allies in a campaign or on a battlefield is always complicated and tricky.  The Great War experimented with command structures which would be critical in later wars.  There were issues on both sides in coordinating with allies.  In some cases, such as Germany and Austro-Hungary, the coordination barely existed at all.  In the case of the Americans, there was a defiant stand to have the American Army not roll-up under a French command.  While command structures were far from perfected in WWI, it gave the participants the experience needed for the next phase of war – WWII.

The peace created a civil war in Germany:

The post-war era in Germany was one were factions used the left-over weapons of war to wage battles against competing political ideologies.   Germany and parts of Poland became embroiled in civil war(s) which drew in veterans to fight to protect their local communities rather than their nations.  While often ignored by historians, several years worth of fighting took place which served to further destabilize a fragmented Germany.

A fragmented Germany which would be an impetus for its reformation in the 1930’s:

The Treaty of Versailles split up Germany as a means of punishment and formed new states such as Poland.  It was a series of actions that were destined to be undone and provided Hitler with a rallying point to unify Germany under his Reich.

Balloons were a force in warfare:

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While countries dabbled in the use of balloons for observation prior to the Great War, WWI became the only war where balloons played a strategic role in warfare.  Balloons provided real-time information on troop positions and movements.  Balloon pilots could telegraph artillery bombardment adjustments immediately.  By the post-war period observation balloons had become antiquated as the role of aircraft increased.  But the first and only “balloon war” was WWI.

The Armenian genocide laid the foundation for the genocide in WWII:

Turkey began the slaughter of the Armenian people in 1915 in a fit of ethnic cleansing.  Ottoman Turks killed 1.5 million Armenians in seven years of genocide.  The world stood by and did nothing.

As part of his formulation for the Final Solution in WWII, Hitler reportedly has said, “Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?”

The war created the personalities that were to lead the world:

The Great War was a breeding ground for the leaders, political and military, that would guide the outcome of the next war. The list that could go into this spot runs the gambit from Churchill to Hitler and Rommel to Patton.   The experiences of WWI became the fertilizer for an upcoming generation of leaders that would guide events into the later part of the 20th century – and beyond.

What ones have I missed?

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Article in Smithsonian Air and Space on The Lafayette Escadrille

Bert Hall of the Lafayette Escadrille
Bert Hall of the Lafayette Escadrille

I recently was interviewed about Bert Hall for the November issue of Air and Space.  It’s always a strange thing for me when I forget about these interviews and they then show up in print.

http://www.airspacemag.com/military-aviation/americas-first-combat-pilots-180953371/?no-ist

Bert was a member of the Lafayette Escadrille – one of the founding members.  He didn’t fit the mold of the aristocratic young men from Harvard, Yale, Princeton and the University of Virginia that made up the squadron…not by a long shot.  Hall was a scoundrel.  His father had been a die-hard Confederate, one of the few that had taken part in the Exodus of Confederates into Mexico hoping to forge a state there.  While he had a relative that fought in the American Revolution, Bert himself was a bit of an opportunist.

When the war broke out in 1914 Hall was driving a cab in Paris.  He drank with the younger American students that gathered there, befriending them.  Seduced by the concept that the war was going to be a six month affair, Hall was part of the original “Band of Brothers” that enlisted in the French Foreign Legion to fight for France, a full three years before the United States entered the fray.

Hall was part of that first phase of the war, before the long lines of semi-static trenches.  He saw good men, Americans and French, die horribly.  When the opportunity came to transfer to the French Air Service, he jumped at it.  It had to be better than the random death on the front lines.

Despite his Hall ended up being at the right place at the right time when two of the young Americans pressed for an all-American squadron.  Hall was one of the founders, and one of the early members of the brotherhood of American aviators in France – the Lafayette Flying Corps.  He scored victories in the Escadrille Américaine (the early name of the Lafayette Escadrille).

Hall didn’t fit in with the rich boys.  He cheated at cards, allegedly stole from them, and crossed some of the members as the unit began to suffer deaths.  He was transferred to another unit, where he scored more victories.

Hall was transferred to Romania, being the only American to fly on both the Western and Eastern fronts in the war.  He ended up in St. Petersburg Russia when the revolution broke out, traveling across the embroiled country to return to America and became a film writer and actor – portraying his “life story” in A Romance of the Air.  Bert Hall was a sort of real-life Forrest Gump – ending up in China between the wars, where he was made a Chinese General commanding local air forces; though he was much more of a mercenary and arms dealer.  Hall gambled his way across China and was eventually arrested for a shady arms deal.  Hall collected ex-wives and children all around the world.  One of his sons even raced in the Indy 500 while another flew for the British in WWII.

Say what you will about this “lovable rogue,” he certainly tromped the Earth. While his impacts are negligible, his story is unique and incredible, even as you wade through his self-promoting hype.   Want to read more?  Check out my book, The Bad Boy – Bert Hall, Aviator and Mercenary of the Skies (Fonthill Media).

Veterans Day 2014

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Photo by Jon Barrett 

I write books on the Great War so Veteran’s Day has special meaning for me – being the 11th day of the 11th Month – timed with the Armistice that ended hostilities in that conflict.  WWI is a war that has (as a result of the centennial) only now started to get its due.  The Americans were there for such a short period of time that the war did not have the emotional impact that WWII did.  Yet we suffered 116,000 deaths from combat and other means along with another 204,000 wounded.  When you consider the short period of time US troops were in battle, these losses are staggering.  Remember – the US ground forces engaged in only two campaigns which spanned less than three months time.  At that rate, in only a year, the US would have easily passed the casualties in the US Civil War.

The stories of the men that fought in that war are no less harrowing and courageous as those of WWII.  In some ways it was a more horrific war.  The use of chemical weapons made battle deadly and crippling in ways we cannot comprehend.  When you look at the aircraft of the era, flying at high altitudes with limited oxygen, in frigid open cockpits – the romantic image gives way to the grim and bitter realities of that kind of fighting.

I am privileged to write about such men.  Recently I spoke at the Museum of the US Air Force for the League of WWI Aviation Historians on Frederick Zinn.  Fred was the subject of my award winning book, Lost Eagles.  A Galesburg/Battle Creek MI native, Fred was Michigan’s first aviator.  He was the United States first aerial combat photographer (in 1916, a year before the US joined the war).  Fred sent all of the replacement pilots to the front in WWI.  When the war was over, he pioneered the search for missing airmen.  In WWII (at over 50 years old) he established the systems for tracking and identifying missing airmen, all while serving as a counter-intelligence agent in the OSS in Europe (precursor to the CIA).

I arranged with the Museum to bring Fred’s uniform out from storage for the League members to see.  I like to think it made my lecture more tangible, more real.  When it came out though, there was a sense that Fred Zinn was there, in the room.  He stood before us, in that French aviator’s uniform, basking for a few moments in silent glory – praised and applauded by people that had a minor comprehension of the risks he had undertaken in a war that has been often forgotten.  I have no words to convey what it was like to stand next to that man’s uniform.

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During his life, Fred never claimed the accolades that he deserved.  He was a humble man.  His commitment was to the families of those men that remained missing – in both world wars.  Fred understood that Veterans Day was not just about the men and women who have seen battle – but it is about the families who bear burdens and emotional scars that most of us cannot comprehend.

On this Veterans Day let us remember not only those that have given their full measure for our nation –but those that are missing still, awaiting for us to bring them home.  Let us remember as well the families of our vets and what they have given up for our country.  Let us remember all of the Frederick Zinns – the silent heroes who, in their own ways, changed the world we live in.   Let us remember the wars, great and small, where blood has been shed in the name of freedom.

Review – To Crown the Waves – The Great Navies of the First World War

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I was at the meeting of The United States World War One Centennial Commission and Carl Bobrow won a book raffle and offered me the copy of To Crown the Waves – The Great Navies of the First World War.  Having authored a WWI naval book, Cruise of the Sea Eagle, I thought I’d dive into it.

Edited by Vincent O’Hara, W. David Dickson and Richard Worth, the book takes a look at each of the major combatant’s navies in the Great War.  This is not a book of naval battles.  Instead it is a well written and researched book that provides the history of these navies, their personnel, their doctrines, communications, intelligence, etc. Gunnery and construction philosophies are detailed in the book as is their perspectives on naval aviation, submarines, amphibious warfare, naval mines, and other areas of interest.  I was fascinated how the various navies tried to adopt the emerging technologies of torpedoes, submarines, and aircraft – some more successfully than others.

I was concerned at first that this was going to be a dry topic with the lack of battles.  I was pleasantly surprised at how downright readable the book was.  In fact, it was engaging.  Where most naval history books on the Great War focus on the fighting, this book delves into the why and how the navies fought.  You get chapters on some naval powers, like Austro-Hungary, which rarely get exposure. The historical context provided in the book really helped explain the roles that the navies played.

I found this book to be a welcome addition to my bookshelf (Thanks Carl!).  The tables and background are useful for a few research and writing projects I have in my queue.  The Naval Institute Press did a great job assembling the team of historians and authors on this project and the product is well worth reading.  The photos were not necessary and far too few in the book – but I know from my own experience as a writer, it can be hard to get the right images in the right number to support the text.  In this case, the broad perspective of the text made images challenging to obtain.

I give this book four out of five stars – a very good Great War read.  It’s a great entry-level book for historians unfamiliar with the topic.